Click on the outline entries to link with their respective discussion pages.

A.  Introduction

B.  Section 1962(c) Claims

1.  Defendant Persons

2.  Enterprise

a.  Enterprise / Racketeering Activity Distinction

b.  Person / Enterprise Distinction

c.  An Enterprise Engaged in or Affecting Interstate Commerce

3.  Defendants’ Operation or Management of the Enterprise

4.  The Pattern

a.  Relatedness

b.  Continuity

c.  Multiple Schemes and the Pattern

5.  Racketeering Activity

a.  Mail and Wire Fraud

b.  Financial Institution  Fraud

c.  Extortion

i.   The Obtaining of Property from Another And Threats of Physical Violence

ii.  The Issue of Consent

iii.  Extortion under Color Of Official Right

iv.  Extortion vs. Legitimate Exercise of Government Power

v.   Other Predicate Acts Related to Extortion

d.  Interstate Transportation of Stolen Property

e.  Extraterritorial Acts of Racketeering

C.  Civil Remedies under Section 1964

1. Proximate Cause

a.  Intervening Factors

i.  Non-predicate Acts

ii.  Independent Contributing Factors

iii.  Directly Injured Third-party Victims

b.  Mail Fraud, Wire Fraud, and Bank Fraud – Reasonable Reliance

2.  Injury to Business or Property

3.  Equitable Relief

4.  Securities Fraud

D.  Section 1962(a) & (b) Claims

1. Association-in-Fact Enterprises Under Sections 1962(a) & (b)

2. Injury “by reason of” a Section 1962(a) Violation

3. Injury “by reason of” a Section 1962(b) Violation

E.  Conspiracies to violate RICO – Section 1962(d)

F.  RICO’s Statute of Limitations

1. Limitations Period

2. Accrual of a Civil RICO Claim

a.  Early Conflicting Accrual Rules

b.  The Supreme Court’s Effort to Resolve the Conflict

3. Tolling Doctrines

4. New and Independent Injuries

G.  Conclusion